What are the most filling foods?

Some foods can maintain the feeling of fullness for longer than others. These foods often have certain characteristics that offset hunger. Many contain a lot of protein, such as eggs, lean meat or fish, nuts, and low-fat dairy.

People sometimes refer to the feeling of fullness as satiety. In 1995, researchers at the University of Sydney put together a satiety index to measure how effectively various foods achieve satiety. In their experiment, participants ate different foods and gave a rating of how full they were after 2 hours.

Eating foods that satisfy hunger can help control calorie consumption. For example, eating a meal that contains filling foods is likely to reduce portion size and snacking between meals. This can aid weight management by cutting the overall calories a person consumes in a day.

Many unhealthful foods are not satiating. Highly processed foods or those high in sugar often have lower satiety scores. Avoiding these foods in favor of those with high satiety scores will have health benefits and offset hunger better.

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For longevity, aim for 150 minutes of weekly exercise

April 14, 2022 – Experts recommend that people who are physically able to exercise aim for 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity every week to reap longevity benefits—but this doesn’t have to mean lengthy sweat sessions at the gym.

Researchers quoted in an April 6, 2022 New York Times article said that, in fact, it’s better to exercise in small amounts during the week than to be sedentary most days and catch up on the weekends. They suggest breaking the weekly 150-minute goal into 30-minute daily goals, which can be achieved with short exercise “snacks” throughout the day. For example, a brisk walk or stair climb counts, as long as it’s performed at a pace that increases breathing and heart rate.

Those wishing to lose weight or stave off age-related weight gain will likely need to move more than 30 minutes a day, and being more active is linked to lower risk of chronic disease. But some regular exercise is better than none, according to researchers.

“For longevity, 150 minutes a week of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity clearly is enough,” I-Min Lee, professor in the Department of Epidemiology at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said in the article.

Read the New York Times article: Is 30 Minutes of Exercise a Day Enough?




The Pros and Cons of Caffeine Consumption in Teens

Teenagers should consume no more than 100 milligrams of caffeine a day, according to recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Why? Consuming high amounts of caffeine can cause irritability, nervousness, rapid heartbeat and anxiety.

Here are five more reasons to help teens limit their daily caffeine intake:

1. Caffeinated drinks often contain empty calories.

Many caffeinated drinks also have lots of sugar and fat. Drinking too much soda may rob teens of valuable nutrients such as calcium.

“Even if you’re drinking tea or coffee, if you’re adding milk, sugar or honey, that can be a problem” with added calories and sugar, says Ty G. Bristol, MD, MPH, a pediatrician at UNC Pediatrics at Panther Creek.

2. Caffeinated drinks can cause dental problems.

Drinking coffee or tea can stain teeth. The sugar in many caffeinated beverages can lead to cavities.

3. Caffeine can cause insomnia.

Caffeine can make it hard to fall asleep at night, which could lead to insomnia and daytime sleepiness.

“Some teens can get twitchy, and caffeine can cause insomnia if you consume too much or late at night,” Dr. Bristol says.

4. Caffeine can affect your heart and head.

Large amounts of caffeine can raise blood pressure in some people.

“If you drink too much, especially those big energy drinks, they can increase your heart rate, and blood pressure goes up with caffeine,” Dr. Bristol says.

It also can cause withdrawal headaches.

“A kid that drinks too much caffeine chronically in high doses can develop a tolerance to it,” Dr. Bristol says. “And then, of course, if they try to stop, they can have withdrawal symptoms, which includes rebound headaches.”

5. Caffeine can drain your wallet.

Caffeinated beverages can be expensive, especially when you buy drinks from popular coffee chains. Think about how much money you could save if you didn’t spend so much on caffeine.

But if consumed in moderation, caffeine intake has benefits, too.

Here are three benefits of caffeine consumption for teens:

1. Caffeine can increase alertness and mental energy.

“Caffeine is a stimulant, and stimulants can help with attention issues,” Dr. Bristol says. “A little bit of coffee can help you be alert to give you a little bit of good mental energy.”

2. Caffeine in small doses can reduce headaches.

A small amount of caffeine may ease headaches. Before a headache, blood vessels tend to enlarge, but caffeine has properties that cause the blood vessels to narrow and restrict blood flow, which can help reduce head pain.

“Caffeine is actually used in some of the headache medicines,” Dr. Bristol says.

3. Caffeine can help you poop.

Drinking coffee can stimulate movement of the muscles in your colon that cause bowel movements.

“There are some studies that say a little bit of caffeine can actually help with constipation because of how it affects the colonic muscle,” Dr. Bristol says.

So Should Your Teen Drink Caffeine?

It’s important to know how much caffeine is in your teen’s drinks.

“Too much of anything is not a good thing,” Dr. Bristol says. “The key is moderation.”

Dr. Bristol also says never to mix caffeine with drugs or alcohol.

“Whether it’s illicit drugs or alcohol, you may be compounding the side effects of those things,” he says.



Whey Protein

International Society of Sports Nutrition Symposium, June 18-19, 2005, Las Vegas NV,
USA – Symposium – Macronutrient Utilization During Exercise: Implications For
Performance And Supplementation


Jay R. Hoffman
and Michael J. Falvo
The Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey, USA
Received: 26 May 2004 / Accepted: 28 June 2004 / Published (online): 01 September 2004
Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and
power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known
concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify
and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic
populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet.
Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the
diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest
benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed.
Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal
sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas
vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary
protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health
professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable
sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports
supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these
products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular
proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health
and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed.


Vitamin supplements and cancer risk

Dietary supplements such as vitamin and mineral tablets have become widely available in Australia and may be taken for a variety of reasons. Some people are advised by their doctor or dietitian to take dietary supplements if they have certain medical conditions, are pregnant or have a restricted dietary intake. However, most people do not need dietary supplements if they eat a wide variety of nutritious foods.

Cancer Council recommends people eat a variety of nutritious foods, especially fruit and vegetables, instead of individual nutrients in supplement form.

Supplements versus whole foods

Foods like fruit and vegetables contain lots of nutrients, but also many other beneficial substances such as fibre, minerals and antioxidants. Dietary fibre can help to ensure a healthier digestive system and reduce the risk of bowel cancer, while antioxidants help protect against the damaging effects of free radicals in the body. Therefore eating whole foods is better than relying on supplements.

Research has shown that nutrients that are taken as supplements may not have the same effect as when they’re consumed in food. This is because the effect of the nutrient may be due to interactions between different food compounds that don’t occur when nutrients are isolated in a supplement.

Eating plenty of nutritious foods like fruit and vegetables, legumes, nuts and wholegrains can also help you to maintain a healthy body weight.

Supplements and cancer risk

Studies suggest that people who eat a diet high in plant foods such as fruit, vegetables and wholegrain cereals have a lower risk for some types of cancer.

However in most cases it is not known which compounds (or combination of compounds) is best when it comes to lowering the risk of cancer. There are likely to be important, but not yet identified, components of whole food that are not included in supplements.

Currently the only evidence to suggest that supplements (e.g. tablets, capsules) can reduce cancer risk is for calcium supplements. There is probable evidence  that taking calcium supplements of more than 200 mg per day protects against bowel cancer.


Calcium is a mineral that is the main constituent of bones and teeth. Calcium has many functions in the body, including nerve and muscle activity, cell differentiation and proliferation. The main source of calcium in Australian diets is dairy foods, but there are smaller amounts in leafy greens, legumes and nuts, and fish with edible bones.

There is probable evidence that taking calcium supplements of more than 200 mg per day protects against bowel cancer.


Beta-carotene is the orange colour pigment found in vegetables and fruit and is converted into Vitamin A in the body. Normal levels of beta-carotene from foods such as dark-green leafy vegetables, carrots, sweet potato, mango and dried apricots may help protect against cancer.

However, taking high-dose beta-carotene supplements (20 mg per day or more) is a cause of lung cancer in people who smoke cigarettes or used to smoke.

Cancer Council recommends people avoid taking high doses (>20 mg) of beta-carotene supplements, especially if they smoke.




  1. Summary
  2. Introduction
  3. What is Stretching?
  4. What is Recovery?
  5. Does post-exercise stretching enhance recovery?
  6. Issues with the current research on stretching
  7. Future Research
  8. Practical Application (Take home messages)
  9. References
  10. About the Author


Post-exercise stretching has been performed as a recovery modality for many decades, if not centuries and beyond, and the current body of research demonstrates that it may have several beneficial effects on recovery. These effects range from decreasing muscle soreness, albeit by a very small amount, increasing flexibility, increasing local blood flow, and decreasing neural excitability. As a result, static stretching may be a useful form of recovery following exercise.

Keywords: post-exercise, static stretching, stretch tolerance, muscle soreness, range of movement, flexibility, parasympathetic nervous system,

post-exercise stretching - science for sport


The practice of stretching after exercise (e.g. training and competition) is extremely common, and something that has been performed for many decades, if not centuries and more. The common reasons for stretching after exercise are to:

  • Reduce muscle soreness
  • Reduce muscle stiffness (i.e. regain pre-exercise ranges of motion)

This was perhaps first popularised after a particular research publication in the 1960’s [1]. Since then, whilst some of the underpinning theory supporting the usefulness of post-exercise stretching has been discredited, the practice of this recovery modality still persists [2].


What is Stretching?

Stretching has been defined as:

“the application of force to musculotendinous structures in order to achieve a change in their length, usually for the purposes of improving joint range of motion, reducing stiffness or soreness, or preparing for an activity.” [3].

Though there are many forms of stretching (Figure 1), static stretching appears to be the most common type prescribed in post-exercise cool-down routines. Stretching is also classified as either acute or chronic. Acute stretching typically refers to a single stretch usually lasting >30-seconds or less [4, 5]. Chronic stretching refers to repeated stretches over a series of sets, days and even weeks [6].

post-exercise stretching - science for sport

What is Recovery?

Recovery is traditionally defined as a 1-stage model, that is, returning something that was lost [7], or a reestablishment of the initial stage [8]. However, recovery in sport, or from exercise is typically seen as a 2-stage model: returning what was lost (e.g. reducing fatigue and re-establishing range of motion), and adapting (i.e. supercompensation) to the imposed training demands [6]. Given this, full recovery should not be considered complete until the athlete has achieved a level of fitness that is higher than pre-exercise levels (i.e. the supercompensation principle). This principle is simply displayed in Figure 2.

Click to the link for more information


Dietary protein intake and human health

Guoyao Wu 1Affiliations expand


A protein consists of amino acids (AA) linked by peptide bonds. Dietary protein is hydrolyzed by proteases and peptidases to generate AA, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These digestion products are utilized by bacteria in the small intestine or absorbed into enterocytes. AA that are not degraded by the small intestine enter the portal vein for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues. AA are also used for cell-specific production of low-molecular-weight metabolites with enormous physiological importance. Thus, protein undernutrition results in stunting, anemia, physical weakness, edema, vascular dysfunction, and impaired immunity. Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day. To meet the functional needs such as promoting skeletal-muscle protein accretion and physical strength, dietary intake of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 g protein per kg BW per day is recommended for individuals with minimal, moderate, and intense physical activity, respectively. Long-term consumption of protein at 2 g per kg BW per day is safe for healthy adults, and the tolerable upper limit is 3.5 g per kg BW per day for well-adapted subjects. Chronic high protein intake (>2 g per kg BW per day for adults) may result in digestive, renal, and vascular abnormalities and should be avoided. The quantity and quality of protein are the determinants of its nutritional values. Therefore, adequate consumption of high-quality proteins from animal products (e.g., lean meat and milk) is essential for optimal growth, development, and health of humans.



Push-up capacity linked with lower incidence of future cardiovascular disease events among men

For immediate release: February 15, 2019

Boston, MA – Active, middle-aged men able to complete more than 40 push-ups had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes—including diagnoses of coronary artery disease and major events such as heart failure—during 10 years of follow-up compared with those who were able to do less than 10 push-ups during the baseline exam.

“Our findings provide evidence that push-up capacity could be an easy, no-cost method to help assess cardiovascular disease risk in almost any setting. Surprisingly, push-up capacity was more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease risk than the results of submaximal treadmill tests,” said first author Justin Yang, occupational medicine resident in the Department of Environmental Health at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

The study was published February 15, 2019 in JAMA Network Open.

Objective assessments of physical fitness are considered strong predictors of health status; however, most current tools such as treadmill tests are too expensive and time-consuming to use during routine exams. This is the first known study to report an association between push-up capacity and subsequent cardiovascular disease outcomes.

The researchers analyzed health data from 1,104 active male firefighters collected from 2000 to 2010. Their mean age was 39.6 and mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.7. Participants’ push-up capacity and submaximal treadmill exercise tolerance were measured at the start of the study, and each man subsequently completed annual physical examinations and health and medical questionnaires.

During the 10-year study period, 37 CVD-related outcomes were reported. All but one occurred in men who completed 40 or fewer pushups during the baseline exam. The researchers calculated that men able to do more than 40 push-ups had a 96% reduced risk of CVD events compared with those who were able to do less than 10 push-ups. Push-up capacity was more strongly associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular disease events than was aerobic capacity as estimated by a submaximal treadmill exercise test.

Because the study population consisted of middle-aged, occupationally active men, the results may not be generalizable to women or to men of other ages or who are less active, note the authors.

“This study emphasizes the importance of physical fitness on health, and why clinicians should assess fitness during clinical encounters,” said senior author Stefanos Kales, professor in the Department of Environmental Health at Harvard Chan School and chief of occupational medicine at Cambridge Health Alliance.

Other Harvard Chan authors include Costas Christophi and Dorothee Baur.

The study was supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Harvard Education and Research Center for Occupational Safety and Health training grant T42 0H008416 (Yang); the FEMA Assistance to Firefighters grants EMW-2006-FP-01493 and EMW-2009-FP-00835, and grants from the Department of Homeland Security (Kales).

“Association Between Push-up Exercise Capacity and Future Cardiovascular Events Among Active Adult Men,” Justin Yang, Costas A. Christophi, Andrea Farioli, Dorothee M. Baur, Steven Moffat, Terrell W. Zollinger, Stefanos N. Kales, JAMA Network Open, February 15, 2019, doi: 10.1001./jamanetworkopen.2018.8341

photo: iStock

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Chris Sweeney