Whey Protein

International Society of Sports Nutrition Symposium, June 18-19, 2005, Las Vegas NV,
USA – Symposium – Macronutrient Utilization During Exercise: Implications For
Performance And Supplementation


Jay R. Hoffman
and Michael J. Falvo
The Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey, USA
Received: 26 May 2004 / Accepted: 28 June 2004 / Published (online): 01 September 2004
Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and
power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known
concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify
and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic
populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet.
Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the
diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest
benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed.
Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal
sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas
vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary
protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health
professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable
sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports
supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these
products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular
proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health
and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed.